Complications of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Hemoptysis 
Blood in the sputum - if excessive and massive patient may collapse and die - due to erosion of arteries in necrotic areas/wall of the cavity

Pleuritis
Pleuritis - Pleuritic pain - toxemia, exertional dyspnea - pleural effusion - if moderate to massive will cause collapse of the lung

Empyema
Collection of pus in the pleural cavity - secondary bacterial infection may occur - ATT, I.C.D., Decortication - Thoracoplasty - ATT, - ICD

Pneumothorax
Coroded alveoli may rupture and cause air collection in the pleural cavity - chest pain, tightness in chest, tension pneumothorax, marked eespiratory distress, tachycardia, cyanosis

Aspergilloma

Endobronchitis

Bronchiectasis 
Bronchial tree - wall damage - lumen enlarges (becomes ectatic)

Laryngitis 
In advanced Pts. - soreness of throat - dry hacking cough - hoarseness - changed voice - whispering - painful phonation - epiglotitis - painful swallowing - Laryngoscopy reveals ulcer, granuloma, paresis of vocal cords - AFB + - ATT corticosteroids

Cor pulmonale
Extensive destruction - scarring - destruction of pulmoary vasculature - pulmonary hypertension - heart failure - CXR : promnent pulmonary conus, increased transvers diameter of heart, prominent pulmonary arteries ECG : P Pulmonale, RVH & strain, RBB

Ca bronchus 
Chronic scar turns into ca

Miliary tuberculosis
Millet like lesions - hematogenous spread - fever - malaise - anorexia - meningeal irritation - CXR : diffuse evenly distributed micronodular shadows - ATT + steroids in severe cases

HIV related opportunistic infections

Intestinal Obstruction 
Tuberculous enteritis - stricture - leading to intestinal obstruction                                                                                                        
 






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