Prefixes are words added in front of another word e.g. Forenoon, afternoon - Fore = before; Noon = mid day. When you want to tell somebody that you will meet him at 12 O'Clock in the day time you say that you will meet him at noon.
Sub means one step below or under e.g. Subinspector, substation, subregistrar, subway, subcutaneous (under the skin), subdural hematoma, subdural hemorrhage
Pre means before like prefix, preface, preKG class,
Ante also means before like in antecibal where ante means before and cibal means meals; AC Blood Sugar that is antecibal blood sugar and PC blood sugar means postcibal blood sugar that is after meals. Blood sugar AC, PC
Also called PP Sugar - post prandial, where prandial means meal, post means after
Intra = inside, Extra = outside Inter = between
Intra abdominal organs = organs inside the abdomen; Intravenous injection = injection given inside a vein; intramuscular injection = injection given inside the muscle, I.V.Fluids - intravenous fluids - fluids given inside the vein
Extra = outside - Extra peritoneal, extrinsic muscles of the eye x intrinsic muscles inside the eyeball or outside the eye ball, extra abdominal;
Extramural causes of intestinal obstruction : mural = wall; causes that are outside the wall of the intestine causing obstruction
Extra sensory perception = an observation that is outside the five senses.
Meridian - Midline or middle point
Ante = before
Post = after
12 O'Clock in the day time is mid point of the day also called noon - meridian
AnteMeidian = before noon - AM - like 9 am 10 am etc
PostMedidian = after noon - PM - like 9 pm 10 pm etc
12 O'Clock of the night is called midnight - you call it 12 mid night like 12 O'Clock of the day is called 12 noon.
Tone means strength
The drugs given to increase one's strength is called tonic or tonics
Tonics can be in liquid form or tablet form or powder form
Tone of the muscle is the strength of the muscle
Even at rest the muscle will be a little tight. That is resting tone.
Even under General Anesthesia the resting tone will be there. So during deep abdominal operations the strength of the abdominal muscles make it difficult for the surgeons to operate.
The patient is given muscle relaxants like panconium or vecronium which completely paralyses the muscle and the muscle becomes soft and compltely relaxed and the surgeon feels easy to operate.
The exercises like walking, running etc they change the length of the muscles for every action; but they do not increase the tightness or strength of the muscle. They are called iso-tonic exercises - iso = same. The same tone of the muscle is maintained only the length changes. So they are called isotonic. They are used to spend energy, and increase the blood circulation.
The exercises like weight lifting, holding a pall tight in the palm do not change the length of the muscle much. But they increase and decrease the tightness or strength of the muscle. They are called iso-metric exercises. iso = same metric = length. so they are called isometric exercises. These exercises are used to improve/increase the strength of the muscle. Also called weighted exercises.
updated on 05-04-2007
Retro = behind Pancreas is retroperitoneal that is it behind the peritoneum and not surrounded by peritoneum
Kidneys are retroperitoneal
ascending colon is retroperitoneal
ureters are retroperitoneal - actually adhering to the posterior surface of the peritoneum
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes
Retroverted gravid uteru : A pregnant uterus which is bent backwards
Retroverted Uterus : A uterus which is leaning backwards,
Retrocaecal appendix : an appendix which is situated behind the caecum
Retropharyngeal space : a space behind the pharynx
Retropharyngeal abscess : An abscess that develops in the space behind the pharynx in the retropharyngeal space
Retrospective thinking : thinking behind the present that is the past
Cancerous tumor of the epithelial tissue is known as carcinoma
Cancerous tumor of the epithelial elements in a gland is called adnocarcinoma - Adeno = gland - inflammation of a gland is called adenitis - inflammation of the lymph gland is known as lymphadenitis - inflammation of the salivary gland is called sialadenitis - Sial = saliva
Sarcoma = cancerous enlargement of connective tissues like fibrous tissue → fibrosarcoma; fat tissue → liposarcoma; bone → osteosarcoma or osterogenic sarcoma