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Hernia


Definition
Hernia is a protrusion of bowel or anyother organ through a weak point in the musculature of the body cavities, usually the abdominal cavity

Aetiology
Intermittent increase in intra-abdominal pressure
most commonly in men who lift heavy loads at work.

The types of hernia known
Indirect inguinal hernia - in the inguinal canal
Direct inguinal hernia - in the inguinal canal
Incisional hernia - through a defect in the scar of a previous surgery
Internal hernia - occurs inside the body cavity - not seen outside - like diaphragmatic hernia
Diaphragmatic hernia
Femoral hernia - through femoral canal - common in women
Obturatior hernia - through obturator foramen
Lumbar hernia - in the lumbar triangle
Epigastric hernia - in the linea alba - usually in the epigastrium - consists of only omentum
Hiatus hernia - sliding and paraesophageal - Diaphragm
Umbilical hernia, paraumbilical hernia

Clinical Features
A swelling which reduces spontaneously, consisting of loops of bowel / omentum / both
They slip into their correct place when the intra-abdominal presure returns to normal.
Reduced by manipulation.
May be irreducible due to adhesions
It may get obstructed
It may get strangulated causing congestion, ischaemia and gangrene.
In addition there may be intestinal obstruction

Treatment
Hernioplasty - with prolene mesh







































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