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Blood and Blood Components

Blood and Blood Components used in Blood Transfusion
Whole blood : is transfused in the treatment of acute massive hemorrhage or hypovolemic shock due to hemorrhage, exchange transfusion for Severe anaemia at birth and severe hyperbilirubinaemia, during cardiovascular bypass surgery
Fresh Blood = < 5 days
Stored at 2-4° C

Cellular Components
Red cell  Concentrates, Platelet Concentrates, Granulocyte Concentrates
Packed Red Cells (Packed Cells)
The red cells are separated from the whole blood by centrifugation or sedimentation. Platets andMost of the plasma are removed. The packed cells are used in severe anemia, Thalassemia and Sickle cell disease, Preoperatively or postoperatively, in acute blood loss and in the presence of CCF

Frozen Red Cells
The red cells are separated and frozen. The frozen cells are administered to patients with rare blood group.

The transfusion of white cells is indicated in patients of granulocytopenia

Plasma is  separated from the  whole bloodby centrifugation. Then the plasma is slowly centrifuged to separate platelets. The platelets are administered to patients with thrombocytopenia.

Plasma Components
Fresh Frozen Plasma, Cryoprecipitate, Cryopoor Plasma, Stored Plasma
The whole plasma is used to treat hypovolemic shock, deficiency of coagulation factors as in bleeding disorders or severe liver diseases.
Fresh frozen plasma contains all coagulation factors, plasma proteins.  indicated in single clotting factor deficiency, multiple clotting factors deficiencies - DIC, massive transfusions, Warfarin overdose, hemorrhagic disese of neonates
Indicated in Hemophilia A, Von Willebrand's disease, FX111 or fibrinogen deficiency
Cryoprecipitate contains FVIII, FXIII, vWf, Fibrinogen
1 unit = 15 ml
Cryopoor Plasma/Cryosupernatant
Stored plasma for plasma protein deficiency
Albumin is used to increase the blood volume in hypovolemic shock and to elevate the level of  albumin in patients with hypoalbunemia.(nephrotic syndrome, liver disease with fluid overload
Coagulation Factors
Factor VIII fractions
Used in the treatment of hemophilia due to fibrinogen, factor VIII and factor XIII deficiencies
Prothrombin Complex
This fraction consists of prothrombin, factor VII, IX and X. It is used in the treatment of hemorrhage due to acute or congenital deficiency of these factors

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