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Functions of Nephron - Kidney

What are the different functions of a nephron? Draw a neat diagram of nephron and label its parts.

Functions of the kidney

1.   Excretion of waste products - urea, uric acid, creatin, creatinine, ammonia etc.
2.    Formation  of urine
3.    Maintenance  of Hydrogen ion concentration of the body fluid and electrolytes
4.    Maintains water balance of the body and plasma volume
5.    Eliminates drugs and toxic substances
6.    Manufacture certain new substances like ammonia, hippuric acid and inorganic phospates
7.    Maintains osmotic pressure of blood and body fluids
8.    Secretion of Hormones : renin, erythropoietin
9.    Maintains the BP by the actions of renin
10.    Maintains erythropoiesis by the action of erythropoietin
11.    Plays a role in Vit.D metabolism


Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body.

Creatine (Not to be confused with creatinine.)
Creatine  is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates. Its main role is to facilitate recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue. This is achieved by recycling adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP via donation of phosphate groups. Creatine also acts as a pH buffer in tissues.

Creatine synthesis primarily occurs in the liver and kidneys.
Creatine is also obtained through the diet at a rate of about 1 gram per day from an omnivorous diet.
Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle, while the remainder is distributed in the blood, brain, and other tissues.