The expansile dilatation of an artery. Usual pulses looked for : radial pulse, carotid pulse, femoral pulse, superficial temporalis pulse. Rate : ranges from 62 to 82 / minute. if more called tachycardia. if less called bradycardia. increases in exercise, fever, hypotension, ccf. decreases in hypertension, in athletes
2. Types of WBC's and functions.
Granulocytes : polymorphonuclear leukocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Agranulocytes : monocytes, lymphocytes
neutrophils - protection against invasion by microbes, remove waste materials eg. cell debris.
eosinophils - protect against parasites, neutralise histamines
basophils - increase the permeability of the small blood vessels, assist in the movements of antibodies
monocytes - phagocytosis, inflammation and immunity
lymphocytes - cell mediated immunity and humoral immunity
3. What are the neural centres for respiration.
Groups of nerve cells control the rate and depth of respiration They are situated
in the brain stem,
in the medulla oblongata and
in the pons varolii.
In the medulla there are inspiratory neurones and expiratory neurones
Neurones in the pneumotaxic and apneustic centres, situated in the pons, influence the inspiratory and expiratory neurones of the medulla.
chemoreceptors : central chemoreceptors - medulla oblongata: peripheral chemoreceptors - arch of aorta and carotid bodies.
Abnormally high linear growth due to excessive action of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I)
while the epiphyseal growth plates are open during childhood.
Acromegaly is the same disorder of IGF-I excess but occurs after the growth plate cartilage fuses in adulthood.