Short Answer Questions

Short Answer Questions: (5X 2 =10)
1. Name any two endocrine glands.
Thyroid gland, Pituitary gland

2. Mention the terminal branches of Brachial artery.
Radial artery, Ulnar artery

3. Give two examples of a Hinge joint.
Elbow joint, Knee joint

4. Mention the branches of the trigeminal nerve.
Ophthalmic branch, Maxillary branch, Mandibular branch

5. Mention the types of cartilage.
Hyaline cartilage, Fibro cartilage, Elastic fibro cartilage

1. Pulse.
The expansile dilatation of an artery. Usual pulses looked for : radial pulse, carotid pulse, femoral pulse, superficial temporalis pulse. Rate : ranges from 62 to 82 / minute. if more called tachycardia. if less called bradycardia. increases in exercise, fever, hypotension, ccf. decreases in hypertension, in athletes

2. Types of WBC's and functions.
Granulocytes : polymorphonuclear leukocytes - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Agranulocytes : monocytes, lymphocytes
Functions :
neutrophils - protection against invasion by microbes, remove waste materials eg. cell debris.
eosinophils - protect against parasites, neutralise histamines
basophils   -  increase the permeability of the small blood vessels, assist in the movements of antibodies
monocytes  - phagocytosis, inflammation and immunity
lymphocytes - cell mediated immunity and humoral immunity

3. What are the neural centres for respiration.

Groups of nerve cells control the rate and depth of respiration They are situated
in the brain stem,
in the medulla oblongata and
in the pons varolii.
In the medulla there are inspiratory neurones and expiratory neurones 
Neurones in the pneumotaxic and apneustic centres, situated in the pons, influence the inspiratory and expiratory neurones of the medulla.

chemoreceptors : central chemoreceptors - medulla oblongata: peripheral chemoreceptors - arch of aorta and carotid bodies.

4. Gigantism.

Abnormally high linear growth due to excessive action of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I)
while the epiphyseal growth plates are open during childhood.
Acromegaly is the same disorder of IGF-I excess but occurs after the growth plate cartilage fuses in adulthood.

Signs and symptoms
Gigantism - dramatic presentation                (Acromegaly - insidious onset)

Gigantism Features
Tall stature
Mild to moderate obesity (common)
Macrocephaly (may precede linear growth)
Soft tissue hypertrophy
Exaggerated growth of the hands and feet, with thick fingers and toes
Coarse facial features
Frontal bossing
Osteoarthritis (a late feature of IGF-I excess)
Peripheral neuropathies (eg, carpel tunnel syndrome)
Cardiovascular disease
Benign tumors

5. List any two functions of bile.

The biliary system's main function includes the following:
To drain waste products from the liver into the duodenum
To help in digestion with the controlled release of bile

Bile consists of waste products, cholesterol, and bile salts that is secreted by the liver cells to perform
two primary functions:

  1. To carry away waste
  2. To break down fats during digestion

Bile salt is the actual component which helps break down and absorb fats.
Bile, which is excreted from the body in the form of feces, is what gives feces its dark brown color.

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