The Ileum

Definition
The ileum is the last part of small intestine
It occupies the central and right lower abdomen and the pelvis
It ends by opening into the caecum where there may be a valve - ileocaecal valve
It forms 3/5 of the small intestine
Its wall is thinner than that of the jejunum

Microscopic Anatomy
The ileum consists of 4 layers
1. Mucosa - having three different layers:
2. submucosa - containing
3. Muscular layer - containing
4. Serosa - visceral peritoneum

Blood Supply
Arterial Supply
Multiple ileal branches arising from the left side of the Superior Mesenteric Arterty.
Ileocolic artery arising from the right side of the Superior Mesenteric Arterty
ileal, ileocolic veins drain into the Superior Mesenteric Vein

Nerve Supply
superior mesenteric plexus
Nerves are derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagus) nerves from the superior mesenteric plexus.

Applied Anatomy
Meckel's diverticulum
Crohn's disease
Tuberculosis
Lymphoma
Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoid)
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